A war is to be avoided at all costs and only after all peaceful means have failed then to rid Oppression Tyranny and in humanity one can consider war to rid evil and Prevail freedom. Thus while at war the blessed prophet laid out rules of Engagement to safe guard minorities, vulnerable & people of different faiths. Also to safe guard prisoners of war & their humane & Civil treatment.
This is a summery as below:
This is a message from the Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah (Peace be upon them):
“As a covenant to those who adopt Christianity,NEAR and FAR, we are with them. Verily I, the servants, the helpers, and my followers defend them,because CHRISTIANS ARE MY CITIZENS;and by Allah! I hold out against anything that displeases them.
No compulsion is to be on them. Neither are their judges to be removed from their jobs nor their monks from their monasteries.
No one is to destroy a [HOUSE of their RELIGION], to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims’ houses.
Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God’s covenant and disobey His Prophet. Verily, they are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate.
No one is to force them to travel or to oblige them to fight. The Muslims are to fight for them. If a female Christian is married to a Muslim, it is not to take place without her approval. She is not to be prevented from visiting her church to pray.
Their churches are to be respected. They are neither to be prevented from repairing them nor the sacredness of their covenants. No one of the nation (Muslims) is to disobey the covenant till the Last Day (end of the world).”
English translation from ‘Muslim History: 570 – 1950 C.E.’ by Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq, ZMD Corporation. P.O. Box 8231 – Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8231 – Copyright Akram Zahoor 2000. P. 167.
The ORIGINAL LETTER was taken away in 1517 by the Turkish Sultan Selim I and is now in the TOPKAPI MUSEUM IN STANBUL, but the sultan gave the monks a copy of it and sanctioned its terms. From the enormous collection of ancient and modern rolls preserved in the monastery’s library, it is clear that the Covenant of the Prophet, whether or not authentic, was in some way or other renewed, and the privileges of protection and safe-conduct for the monks were upheld.